Texas Family Code 160.106 Presumption of Maternity
Texas Family Code 160.106 Presumption of Maternity

Did you know that the presumptions of paternity apply also to presumptions of maternity? Little known Texas Family Code section 160.106 says that the provision of Chapter 160 relating to the determination of paternity apply to a determination of maternity. In looking at the provisions related to paternity, the presumption of parentage would apply to a child born during a marriage, to a parent who signs an acknowledgment of parentage, or to persons voluntarily named as a parent on a child’s birth certificate. What about in 160.202 (5) where paternity is presumed for a man who, during the first 2 years of a child’s life, resides in the household with the child and represented to others that the child was his own — does that paternity presumption apply also to maternity? According to 160.106 it does. This is one of the sticky situations that may come with the recognition of same-sex marriages in Texas involves the parental presumptions that will arise with children of such relationships. Take a lesbian couple where one mother decides to give birth to a child during the marriage.  Once Texas recognizes those marriages, the non-biological partner could claim a presumption of maternity by virtue of being married at the time of the birth. Or, even if the couple were not married, but lived together during the first 2 years of the child’s life and represented to others that they were both mothers, a presumption of parentage could apply. This statute is part of the Uniform Parentage Act which was also adopted by California. There, the case In re D.S. actually finds that the presumption of maternity code section was designed to provide an avenue for presumed parentage for same-sex couples:

“[I]n the context of same-sex relationships involving two women, courts have found a child may have a biological mother and a presumed mother, to the extent the woman who is the nonbiological [or nonadoptive] parent meets the requirements of one or more of the presumptions listed in section 7611.” (In re Bryan D. (2011) 199 Cal.App.4th 127, 138–139; see, e.g., S.Y. v. S.B. (2011) 201 Cal.App.4th 1023 [upholding application of section 7611, subdivision (d) to give parental rights to a former partner in a same-sex relationship who had received the adoptive mother’s children into her home and held them out as her own].)

See In re D.S. at http://caselaw.findlaw.com/ca-court-of-appeal/1606532.html. There are some courts and some judges in Texas — and maybe even some lawyers — that will be shocked to see that Texas already has statutes that contemplate rights for same-sex couples. Some parts of this chapter already apply, even without recognition of same-sex marriage. That’s why it is so important to talk to a lawyer who knows about the intricate rights of same-sex couples and can advise accordingly.

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Photo of Michelle O'Neil Michelle O'Neil

Michelle May O’Neil has 27 years’ experience representing small business owners, professionals, and individuals in litigation related to family law matters such as divorce, child custody, and complex property division. Described by one lawyer as “a lethal combination of sweet-and-salty”, Ms. O’Neil exudes…

Michelle May O’Neil has 27 years’ experience representing small business owners, professionals, and individuals in litigation related to family law matters such as divorce, child custody, and complex property division. Described by one lawyer as “a lethal combination of sweet-and-salty”, Ms. O’Neil exudes genuine compassion for her client’s difficulties, yet she can be relentless when in pursuit of a client’s goals. One judge said of Ms. O’Neil, “She cannot be out-gunned, out-briefed, or out-lawyered!”

Family Law Specialist

Ms. O’Neil became a board-certified family law specialist by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization in 1997 and has maintained her certification since that time. While representing clients in litigation before the trial court is an important part of her practice, Ms. O’Neil also handles appellate matters in the trial court, courts of appeals and Texas Supreme Court. Lawyers frequently consult with Ms. O’Neil on their litigation cases about specialized legal issues requiring particularized attention both at the trial court and appellate levels. This gives her a unique perspective and depth of perception that benefits both her litigation and appellate clients.

Top Lawyers in Texas and America

Ms. O’Neil has been named to the list of Texas SuperLawyers for many years, 2011-2018, a peer-voted honor given to only about 5% of the lawyers in the state of Texas. In 2014-2018, Ms. O’Neil received the special honor of being named by Texas SuperLawyers as one of the Top 50 Women Lawyers in Texas, Top 100 Lawyers in Texas, and Top 100 Lawyers in DFW. She was named one of the Best Lawyers in America for 2016 and received an “A-V” peer review rating by Martindale-Hubbell Legal Directories for the highest quality legal ability and ethical standards.

Author and Speaker

A noted author, Ms. O’Neil released her second book Basics of Texas Divorce Law in November 2010, with a second edition released in 2013, and a third edition expected in 2015.  Her first book, All About Texas Law and Kids, was published in September 2009 by Texas Lawyer Press. In 2012, Ms. O’Neil co-authored the booklets What You Need To Know About Common Law Marriage In Texas and Social Study Evaluations.  The State Bar of Texas and other providers of continuing education for attorneys frequently enlist Ms. O’Neil to provide instruction to attorneys on topics of her expertise in the family law arena.